# Quiz | Chemical Thermodynamics

Which of the following statements best describes the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

The energy of the universe is constant

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed

The total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time

At absolute zero, the entropy of a perfect crystal is considered to be zero

Second Law of Thermodynamics: the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time and is constant if all processes are reversible ⇒ the entropy change is never negative: ΔS_{system} + ΔS_{surrounding} ≥ 0

What is the expression of the Gibbs energy change?

ΔG_{rxn} = ΔH_{rxn} + TΔS_{rxn}

ΔG_{rxn} = ΔH_{rxn} - TΔS_{rxn}

ΔG_{rxn} = ΔH_{rxn} - RTΔS_{rxn}

ΔG_{rxn} = ΔH_{rxn}/T + ΔS_{rxn}

Which of the following criteria for reaction spontaneity is incorrect?

ΔG_{rxn} = 0: reaction is at equilibrium

ΔG_{rxn} < 0: reaction is spontaneous and additional products can form

Q < K: reaction proceeds spontaneously from right to left

None of the above

ΔG_{rxn} = RT ln $\left(\frac{\mathrm{Q}}{\mathrm{K}}\right)$

Gibbs criteria for reaction spontaneity:

If Q < K ⇔ ΔG_{rxn} < 0: reaction proceeds spontaneously from left to right

If Q > K ⇔ ΔG_{rxn} > 0: reaction proceeds spontaneously from right to left

If Q = K ⇔ ΔG_{rxn} = 0: reaction is at equilibrium

Which of the following statements is always true when a reversible chemical reaction has attained equilibrium?

The Gibbs free energy of the system reaches a minimum

All reactants have been converted to products

The forward reaction dominates over the reverse reaction

The reaction quotient equal to 0

What is the relationship between the equilibrium constant K and the temperature T?

ln K and T are proportional

ln K and -T are proportional

K and ln T are proportional

ln K and 1/T are proportional

ln K = - $\frac{\u2206{{\mathrm{H}}^{0}}_{\mathrm{rxn}}}{\mathrm{RT}}$ + $\frac{\u2206{{\mathrm{S}}^{0}}_{\mathrm{rxn}}}{\mathrm{R}}$ ⇒ a plot of ln K versus $\frac{1}{\mathrm{T}}$ is linear (ln K and $\frac{1}{\mathrm{T}}$ are proportional)

When does the entropy usually increase?

A molecule is broken into 2 or more molecules

A solid turns into a liquid

A liquid turns into a gas

All of the above situations

Entropy S is a measure of the amount of disorder in a system ⇒ the greater the disorder the higher the entropy.

The disorder of a system is greatest when a molecule is broken into 2 or more molecules or when a solid turns into a liquid or when a liquid turns into a gas