Quiz - Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides - 3 | Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides - Synthesis
Organic Chemistry 1 - Quiz - Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides - 3
Which functional group in alcohols is primarily responsible for their higher boiling points compared to alkanes of similar molar mass?
Alcohols contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group, which can form hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding is much stronger than the van der Waals forces that dominate in alkanes, leading to higher boiling points.
When naming alcohols using the IUPAC system, what suffix is used to denote the presence of a hydroxyl group?
In IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix -ol indicates an alcohol, and is used after the hydrocarbon chain name that reflects the longest carbon chain containing the hydroxyl group.
What type of SN reaction facilitates the preparation of alcohols from haloalkanes?
Alcohols can be prepared from haloalkanes using either SN1 or SN2 mechanisms, depending on the structure of the haloalkane and the reaction conditions.
Which reducing agent is commonly used in the synthesis of alcohols from ketones?
LiAlH4 and NaBH4 are both commonly used for reductions of ketones to alcohols. Hydrogenation (H2 with a catalyst) can also reduce a ketone to an alcohol.
Which organometallic reagent is used to synthesize primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols by reacting with carbonyl compounds?
Grignard reagents are used to form alcohols by reaction with carbonyl compounds. The type of alcohol formed (primary, secondary, or tertiary) depends on the type of carbonyl compound.
Ether synthesis via the Williamson synthesis involves which type of reaction?
Williamson synthesis of ethers involves an SN2 reaction between an alkoxide ion and a primary alkyl halide or a sulfonate ester.
What reaction condition is particularly crucial in the synthesis of epoxides from alkenes?
A peroxidation process, such as the Prilezhaev reaction that uses peroxy acids, is crucial for converting alkenes to epoxides.
What outcome is commonly expected when a Grignard reagent reacts with formaldehyde?
Reaction of a Grignard reagent with formaldehyde yields a primary alcohol after aqueous workup.
In the context of SN1 reactions, what is the significance of a carbocation intermediate for the synthesis of alcohols?
In SN1 reactions, a carbocation intermediate can undergo rearrangement to form a more stable carbocation, which can then react to form a more stable alcohol.
What structural feature of ethers makes them relatively unreactive in many chemical reactions?
Ethers are relatively unreactive due to the stable nature of the ether C-O-C bond, which lacks the polarity and reactivity associated with more reactive functional groups.