Arkansas Requirements for Passing High School Chemistry | General Chemistry 1

Is Chemistry Required in High School in Arkansas?

All Arkansas students must earn 3 science credits to graduate:

  • a course approved by ADE as a biology credit (1 credit)
  • a course approved by ADE as a physical science credit (1 credit)
  • a third course approved by ADE for science credit or Computer Science Flex credit (1 credit)

All students are required to earn at least one Physical Science credit by taking one of these courses. For all students to complete the Smart Core or Core pathways to graduation, any third science course listed below can meet the third science credit:

Students can take Chemistry or Chemistry II to satisfy the required physical science credit. Additionally, students pursuing Career & Technical Education (CTE) credits can choose a course in the Chemistry of Foods. However, it should be noted that CTE credits are not applied to the 38 core classes students must complete throughout high school.

Chemistry — Integrated Standards

Topic 1: Matter and Chemical Reactions 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CI-PS1-1 

Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.]

CI-PS1-2 

Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, carbon and oxygen, and carbon and hydrogen.] 

CI-PS1-3 

Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, including identifying and naming specific intermolecular forces (dipole- dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.]

CI-PS1-6 

Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.] 

CI-PS1-7 

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on demonstrating conservation of mass through the mole concept and stoichiometry. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking, not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.] 

CI-ESS2-5 

Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide the evidence for connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, or frost wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids).] 

CI1-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. . [AR Clarification Statement: Examples of real-world problems could include wastewater treatment, production of biofuels, and the impact of heavy metals or phosphate pollutants on the environment.]

Topic 2: Nuclear Reactions 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CI-PS1-8 

Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on simple qualitative models, such as pictures or diagrams, and on the scale of energy released in nuclear processes relative to other kinds of transformations.] 

CI-ESS1-1 

Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and noncyclic variations over centuries.] 

CI-ESS1-3 

Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] 

CI-ESS1-6 

Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.] 

CI2-ETS1-1 

Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the specific needs and constraints involved with power generation.] 

CI2-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on nuclear power management.] 

CI2-ETS1-3 

Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the relationship between nuclear fission and fusion.] 

CI2-ETS1-4 

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include nuclear weapons and nuclear medicine (radioisotopes or radiation therapy).] 

Topic 3: Energy Flow 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CI-PS1-4 

Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.] 

CI-PS1-5 

Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.] 

CI-PS3-1 

Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model.] 

CI-ESS1-2 

Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).] 

CI-ESS2-3 

Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one dimensional model of Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure laboratory experiments.] 

CI-ESS3-4 

Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on the impacts of human activities on physical systems. Examples of data on the impacts of human activities could include the quantities and types of pollutants released (fertilizer, surface mining, and nuclear byproducts). Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale engineering design solutions (nuclear power, photovoltaic cells, wind power, and water power).] 

CI3-ETS1-1 

Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples of the applications could include renewable energy resources (solar cells and wind farms), the Haber process for the production of fertilizers, and increased fuel efficiency of combustion engines.] 

Topic 4: Waves 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CI-PS4-1 

Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass as well as seismic waves traveling through the Earth.]

CI-PS4-3 

Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new evidence. Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect.] 

CI-PS4-4 

Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that photons associated with different frequencies of light have different energies, and the damage to living tissue from electromagnetic radiation depends on the energy of the radiation. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias.] 

CI-PS4-5 

Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.* [Clarification Statement: Examples could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology.]

CI4-ETS1-4 

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include information transfer using fiber optics, radio waves, and medical imaging.]

Topic 5: Forces 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CI-PS2-1 

Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force (a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force).] 

CI-PS2-2 

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.]

CI-PS2-4 

Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] 

CI-PS3-5 

Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include drawings, diagrams, and texts, such as drawings of what happens when two charges of opposite polarity are near each other.] 

CI-ESS1-4 

Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] 

CI5-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include satellite deployment, airbag design, gravity assist, sports safety, and elevators.] 

Chemistry II Standards

Topic 1: Structure of Matter 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII1-PS1-1 

Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples of properties predicted from patterns could include atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.] 

CII-PS1-1AR 

Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information on the evolution of atomic models over time. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include solid particle, plum pudding, planetary, and quantum mechanical).] 

CII-PS1-2AR 

Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information using Coulomb’s law to describe and predict patterns of electrostatic forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of electrical fields based on periodic trends.] 

CII-PS1-3AR 

Use mathematical representations and computational thinking to support a claim that patterns exist among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on quantitative calculations.] 

CII-PS1-4AR 

Analyze and interpret data of absorption and emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation and models of the atom. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on photons provide information about the energy and location of the electrons. Models include the Bohr model and Quantum Mechanical model. Examples of investigations could include flame tests and analysis of atomic line spectra.] 

CII-PS1-8 

Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on quantitative models of nuclear processes including balancing nuclear equations, determining the rate of radioactive decay, and practical applications of nuclear energy and nuclear medicine).] 

CII-PS4-3 

Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the particle-wave nature of light and electrons to understand the quantum model of the atom, including quantum numbers and the photoelectric effect.] 

CII1-ETS1-3 

Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include alternative energy such as nuclear, wind, and solar.] 

Topic 2: Properties of Matter 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII2-PS1-1 

Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on types of bonds (ionic, covalent, metallic) formed and numbers of bonds.] 

CII-PS1-3 

Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, including identifying and naming specific intermolecular forces. Emphasis is on Coulomb's law] 

CII-PS2-1AR 

Develop and use models to explain the differences between chemical compounds using patterns as a method for identification. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on nomenclature and formula writing based on the type of compound (ionic, binary molecular, acids). Ionic compounds could include polyatomic ions.] 

CII-PS2-2AR 

Use mathematics and computational thinking to apply Coulomb’s law to determine scale, proportion, and quantity of forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on intermolecular forces in binary compounds using hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, and London dispersion.] 

CII-PS2-3AR 

Use mathematical representations to quantify matter through the analysis of patterns in chemical compounds. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the mole concept, empirical formula, molecular formula, percent composition, and law of constant composition.] 

CII-PS2-4AR 

Develop and use a model of two particles interacting through electric fields to illustrate forces between particles and the changes in energy due to the interaction. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams (Lewis structures or other types of dot diagrams).] 

CII2-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include designing a method to test properties of solutions (conductivity, pH, turbidity) or a method to separate mixtures.]

Topic 3: Reactions 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII-PS1-2 

Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [AR Clarification Statement: An example could include recognizing patterns to predict reaction products including transition elements.] 

CII-PS1-7 

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on demonstrating conservation of mass through mole concept, stoichiometry, limiting and excess reagents.] 

CII-PS3-1AR 

Use mathematical representations to analyze the proportion and quantity of particles in solution. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on concentration (molarity, molality) solutions and developing net ionic equations.] 

CII-PS3-2AR 

Construct an explanation of the relationship between energy and the behavior of particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative evidence of particle behavior in different states of matter. Examples of evidence could include phase diagrams or heating curves.] 

CII-PS3-3AR 

Plan and carry out an investigation to predict the outcome of a chemical reaction based on patterns of chemical properties. [Clarification Statement: Examples of various reaction types could include acid base, precipitation, or redox. Examples of patterns could include the use of solubility rules, activity series, or titrations.] 

CII3-ETS1-3 

Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include the effects of concentration of solutions on the freezing/boiling point (melting of ice on roadways).]

Topic 4: Kinetics and Kinetic Molecular Theory 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII-PS1-5 

Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Collision theory.] 

CII-PS4-1AR 

Plan and carry out investigations to examine stability and change exhibited by gas particles in a closed system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the relationships between pressure, volume, temperature, and quantity of particles (Graham's law of effusion, Dalton's law of partial pressure, gas stoichiometry).] 

CII-PS4-2AR 

Argue from evidence cause and effect relationships of factors influencing behavior of gas particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the kinetic molecular theory.] 

CII4-ETS1-4 

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real- world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. [AR Clarification Statement: An example could include the Haber process used to produce ammonia.]

Topic 5: Thermochemistry 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII-PS1-4 

Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a chemical reaction as a system that affects energy change (Hess's Law, net bond energy, endothermic, exothermic).] 

CII-PS5-1AR 

Analyze and interpret data to explain energy (enthalpy) changes of a reaction. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing energy changes of a reaction (activation energy, catalyst).] 

CII-PS5-2AR 

Plan and conduct an investigation to calculate changes in energy within a system and/or energy flows in and out of a system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the use of mathematical expressions to describe the change in energy within the system. Investigations could include electrochemistry (electrolysis).] 

CII5-ETS1-4 

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include the efficiency of the internal combustion engine.]

Topic 6: Equilibrium 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII-PS1-6 

Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.* [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants, removing products, changing pressure, and changing temperature.] 

CII-PS6-1AR 

Analyze and interpret data to explain the change in concentration of products and reactants, and the stable state achieved under reversible conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a qualitative equilibrium.] 

CII6-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include Haber process and other industrial processes.]

Topic 7: Organic Chemistry 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

CII-PS7-1AR 

Obtain and combine information to describe differences between alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using patterns as a method for identification, nomenclature, and formula writing for hydrocarbons one through ten.] 

CII-PS7-2AR 

Obtain and combine information to describe differences between various functional groups. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using patterns as a method for identifying differences among alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, ether, carboxylic acid, ester, amine, and amide groups.] 

CII7-ETS1-1 

Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis could include crude oil refining process, supply, and demand.]

Accelerated Science Course Pathway

The Arkansas Accelerated Science Course Pathway provides an option for students to meet the Arkansas K-12 Science Standards at a more rapid pace. This option is for students who have demonstrated advanced academic proficiency in the prerequisite courses and who intend to pursue a specific college and career pathway beyond high school.

Accelerated Chemistry - Integrated

Topic 1: Matter and Chemical Reactions 

ACI-PS1-1 

Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of properties predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.] 

ACI-PS1-1AR 

Construct and revise models representing coulombic interactions among molecular electron domains that produce stable molecular arrangements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on constructing Lewis structures, identifying atomic hybridization (sp, sp2, sp3), applying VSEPR theory to assign molecular geometry (trigonal planar, trigonal pyramidal, tetrahedral), and determining molecular polarity in the context of adding/canceling bond dipoles.] 

ACI-PS1-2 

Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, carbon and oxygen, and carbon and hydrogen.] 

ACI-PS1-3 

Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on the strengths of forces between particles, including identifying and naming specific intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.] 

ACI-PS1-6 

Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.] 

ACI-PS1-7 

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on demonstrating conservation of mass through the mole concept and stoichiometry. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking, not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.] 

ACI-ESS2-5 

Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide the evidence for connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, or frost wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids).]

ACI1-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples of real-world problems could include wastewater treatment, production of biofuels, and the impact of heavy metals or phosphate pollutants on the environment.] 

Topic 2: Nuclear Reactions 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

ACI-PS1-8 

Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on simple qualitative models, such as pictures or diagrams, and on the scale of energy released in nuclear processes relative to other kinds of transformations.] 

ACI-ESS1-1 

Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and noncyclic variations over centuries.] 

ACI-ESS1-3 

Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] 

ACI-ESS1-6 

Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.] 

ACI2-ETS1-1 

Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the specific needs and constraints involved with power generation.] 

ACI2-ETS1-2 

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on nuclear power management.] 

ACI2-ETS1-3 

Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade- offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. [AR Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the relationship between nuclear fission and fusion.] 

ACI2-ETS1-4 

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include nuclear weapons and nuclear medicine (radioisotopes or radiation therapy). Examples of possible computer simulations could include PhET.] 

Topic 3: Energy Flow

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

ACI-PS1-4 

Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.] 

ACI-PS1-5 

Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.] 

ACI-PS3-1 

Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model.] 

ACI-ESS1-2 

Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).] 

ACI-ESS2-3 

Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one dimensional model of Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure laboratory experiments.]

ACI-ESS3-4 

Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.* [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Emphasis is on the impacts of human activities on physical systems. Examples of data on the impacts of human activities could include the quantities and types of pollutants released (fertilizer, surface mining, and nuclear byproducts). Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale engineering design solutions (nuclear power, photovoltaic cells, wind power, and water power).] 

ACI3-ETS1-1 

Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples of the applications could include renewable energy resources (solar cells and wind farms), the Haber process for the production of fertilizers, and increased fuel efficiency of combustion engines.] 

Topic 4: Waves 

Students who demonstrate understanding can: 

ACI-PS4-1 

Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. [AR Clarification Statement: This PE is fully addressed in this course. Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass as well as seismic waves traveling through the Earth.] 

ACI-PS4-3 

Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new evidence. Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect.] 

ACI-PS4-4 

Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that photons associated with different frequencies of light have different energies, and the damage to living tissue from electromagnetic radiation depends on the energy of the radiation. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias.] 

ACI-PS4-5 

Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.* [Clarification Statement: Examples could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology.]

ACI4-ETS1-4 

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real- world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem. [AR Clarification Statement: Examples could include information transfer using fiber optics, radio waves, and medical imaging.]