Is Chemistry Required in High School in Mississippi?
Students in Mississippi need 3 Science credits in order to graduate high school. One credit must be in Biology. Chemistry is a one-credit elective. According to the Mississippi Science Standards, the state offers a robust chemistry curriculum that expands deep into the concepts needed to prepare them for college. Chemistry topics include:
CHE.2 Atomic Theory
Atomic theory is the foundation of modern chemistry concepts. Students must be presented with a solid foundation of the atom and its components. These concepts lead to an understanding of the interactions of these components to explain macro-observations of the world.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of the atomic structure and the historical developments leading to modern atomic theory.
- Investigate the historical progression leading to the modern atomic theory, including, but not limited to, work done by Dalton, Rutherford’s gold foil experiment, Thomson’s cathode ray experiment, Millikan’s oil drop experiment, and Bohr’s interpretation of bright-line spectra.
- Construct models (e.g., ball and stick, online simulations, mathematical computations) of atomic nuclei to explain the abundance weighted average (relative mass) of elements and isotopes on the published mass of elements.
- Investigate absorption and emission spectra to interpret explanations of electrons at discrete energy levels using tools such as online simulations, spectrometers, prisms, flame tests, and discharge tubes.
- Explore both laboratory experiments and real‐world examples.
- Research appropriate sources to evaluate the way absorption and emission spectra are used to study astronomy and the formation of the universe.
CHE.3 Periodic Table
Modern chemistry is based on the predictability of atomic behavior. Periodic patterns in elements led to the development of the periodic table. Electron configuration is a direct result of this periodic behavior. The predictable behavior of electrons has led to the discovery of new compounds, elements, and atomic interactions. Predictability of atom behavior is key to understanding ionic and covalent bonding and the production of compounds or molecules.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements.
- Explore and communicate the organization of the periodic table, including history, groups, families, family names, metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and transition metals.
- Analyze properties of atoms and ions (e.g., metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic/ionic radii) using periodic trends of elements based on the periodic table.
- Analyze the periodic table to identify quantum numbers (e.g., valence shell electrons, energy level, orbitals, sublevels, and oxidation numbers).
A firm understanding of bonding is necessary to further development of the basic chemical concepts of compounds and chemical interactions.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of the types of bonds and resulting atomic structures for the classification of chemical compounds.
- Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3‐D ball‐stick, 3‐D printing, or simulation programs such as PhET) to predict the type of bonding between atoms and the shape of simple compounds.
- Use models such as Lewis structures and ball and stick models to depict the valence electrons and their role in the formation of ionic and covalent bonds. Predict the ionic or covalent nature of different atoms based on electronegativity trends and/or position on the periodic table.
- Use models and oxidation numbers to predict the type of bond, the shape of the compound, and the polarity of the compound.
- Use models of simple hydrocarbons to exemplify structural isomerism.
- Use mathematical and computational analysis to determine the empirical formula and the percent composition of compounds.
- Use the scientific investigation to determine the percentage of composition for a substance (e.g., sugar in gum, water and/or unpopped kernels in popcorn, percent water in a hydrate).
- Compare results to justify conclusions based on experimental evidence.
- Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to produce mathematical evidence of the empirical composition of a compound.
CHE.5 Naming Compounds
Polyatomic ions (radicals) and oxidation numbers are used to predict how metallic ions, nonmetals, and transition metals are used in naming compounds.
- Students will investigate and understand the accepted nomenclature used to identify the name and chemical formulas of compounds.
- Use the periodic table and a list of common polyatomic ions as a model to derive chemical compound formulas from compound names and compound names from chemical formulas.
- Generate formulas of ionic and covalent compounds from compound names. Discuss compounds in everyday life and compile lists and uses of these chemicals.
- Generate names of ionic and covalent compounds from their formulas.
- Name binary compounds, binary acids, stock compounds, ternary compounds, and ternary acids.
CHE.6 Chemical Reactions
Understanding chemical reactions and predicting products of these reactions is essential to student success.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of the types, causes, and effects of chemical reactions.
- Develop and use models to predict the products of chemical reactions (e.g., synthesis reactions; single replacement; double displacement; and decomposition, including exceptions such as decomposition of hydroxides, chlorates, carbonates, and acids).
- Discuss and/or compile lists of reactions used in everyday life.
- Plan, conduct, and communicate the results of investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions.
- Use mathematics and computational analysis to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles (stoichiometry).
- Use mathematics and computational analysis to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
- Give real‐world examples (e.g., burning wood).
- Plan and conduct a controlled scientific investigation to produce mathematical evidence that mass is conserved.
- Use percent error to analyze the accuracy of results.
- Use mathematics and computational analysis to support the concept of percent yield and limiting reagent.
- Plan and conduct a controlled scientific investigation to produce mathematical evidence to predict and confirm the limiting reagent and percent yield in the reaction.
- Analyze quantitative data, draw conclusions, and communicate findings.
- Compare and analyze class data for validity.
CHE.7 Gas Laws
The comparison and development of the molecular states of matter are an integral part of understanding matter. Pressure, volume, and temperature are imperative to understanding the states of matter.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and behavior of gases.
- Analyze the behavior of ideal and real gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.
- Use an engineering design process to develop models (e.g., online simulations or student interactive activities) to explain and predict the behavior of each state of matter using the movement of particles and intermolecular forces to explain the behavior of matter.
- Analyze and interpret heating curve graphs to explain the energy relationship between states of matter (e.g., thermochemistry‐water heating from ‐20oC to 120oC).
- Use mathematical computations to describe the relationships comparing pressure, temperature, volume, and number of particles, including Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Dalton’s law, combined gas laws, and ideal gas laws.
- Use an engineering design process and online simulations or lab investigations to design and model the results of controlled scientific investigations to produce mathematical evidence that confirms the gas‐laws relationships.
- Use the ideal gas law to support the prediction of volume, mass, and number of particles produced in chemical reactions (i.e., gas stoichiometry).
- Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to produce mathematical evidence that confirms that reactions involving gases conform to the law of conservation of mass.
- Using gas stoichiometry, calculate the volume of carbon dioxide needed to inflate a balloon to occupy a specific volume.
- Use an engineering design process to design, construct, evaluate, and improve a simulated airbag.
Solutions exist as solids, liquids, or gases. Solution concentration is expressed by specifying relative amounts of solute to solvent.
- Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of properties of various types of chemical solutions.
- Use mathematical and computational analysis to quantitatively express the concentration of solutions using the concepts such as molarity, percent by mass, and dilution.
- Develop and use models (e.g., online simulations, games, or video representations) to explain the dissolving process in solvents on the molecular level.
- Analyze and interpret data to predict the effect of temperature and pressure on solids and gases dissolved in water.
- Design, conduct, and communicate the results of experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent compounds in solution.
- Use mathematical and computational analysis to analyze molarity, molality, dilution, and percentage dilution problems.
- Design, conduct, and communicate the results of experiments to produce a specified volume of a solution of a specific molarity, and dilute a solution of a known molarity.
- Use mathematical and computational analysis to predict the results of reactions using the concentration of solutions (i.e., solution stoichiometry).
- Investigate parts per million and/or parts per billion as it applies to environmental concerns in your geographic region, and reference laws that govern these factors.
CHE.9 Acids and Bases
Students will understand the nature and properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.
- Analyze and interpret data to describe the properties of acids, bases, and salts.
- Analyze and interpret data to identify differences between strong and weak acids and bases (i.e., dissociation).
- Plan and conduct investigations using the pH scale to classify acid and base solutions.
- Analyze and evaluate the Arrhenius, Bronsted‐Lowry, and Lewis acid‐base definitions.
- Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate pH from the hydrogenion concentration.
- Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how buffers stabilize pH in acid‐base reactions.
Students will understand that energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions.
- Construct explanations to explain how temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).
- Classify chemical reactions and phase changes as exothermic or endothermic based on enthalpy values. Use a graphical representation to illustrate the energy changes involved.
- Analyze and interpret data from energy diagrams and investigations to support claims that the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction depends on changes in total bond energy.
- Use mathematical and computational thinking to solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.
Students will understand that chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular level.
- Construct explanations to explain how to use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure.
- Predict when equilibrium is established in a chemical reaction.
- Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate an equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.
CHE.12 Organic Nomenclature
Students will understand that the bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of many different organic molecules with various sizes, shapes, and chemical properties.
- Construct explanations to explain the bonding characteristics of carbon that result in the formation of basic organic molecules.
- Obtain information to communicate the system used for naming the basic linear hydrocarbons and isomers that contain single bonds, simple hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds, and simple molecules that contain a benzene ring.
- Develop and use models to identify the functional groups that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, esters, aldehydes, and organic acids.