Is Chemistry Required in High School in Wisconsin?
High school students in Wisconsin must complete 3 Science credits in order to graduate. Districts have the option to use the Wisconsin Standards for Science (WSS), the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) on which they were based, or other locally determined standards. Even though there may be some differences between schools, students will undoubtedly study core science topics that rely on an understanding of chemistry fundamentals, such as:
SCI.PS1.A.h The sub-atomic structural model and interactions between electric charges at the atomic scale can be used to explain the structure and interactions of matter, including chemical reactions and nuclear processes. Repeating patterns of the periodic table reflect patterns of outer electrons. A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy to take the molecule apart.
SCI.PS1.B.h Chemical processes are understood in terms of collisions of molecules, rearrangement of atoms, and changes in energy as determined by properties of elements involved.
SCI.PS1.C.h Nuclear processes, including fusion, fission, and radioactive decays of unstable nuclei, involve release or absorption of energy.
SCI.PS2.A.h Motion and changes in motion can be quantitatively described using concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration (including speeding up, slowing down, and/or changing direction). Newton’s second law of motion (F=ma) and the conservation of momentum can be used to predict changes in the motion of macroscopic objects. If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system.
SCI.PS2.B.h Forces at a distance are explained by fields that can transfer energy and can be described in terms of the arrangement and properties of the interacting objects and the distance between them. These forces can be used to describe the relationship between electrical and magnetic fields. Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
SCI.PS3.A.h Systems move towards more stable states.
SCI.PS3.B.h The total energy within a system is conserved. Energy transfer within and between systems can be described and predicted in terms of energy associated with the motion or configuration of particles (objects).
SCI.PS3.C.h Fields contain energy that depends on the arrangement of the objects in the field.
SCI.PS3.D.h Photosynthesis is the primary biological means of capturing radiation from the sun; energy cannot be destroyed, but it can be converted to less useful forms.
SCI.PS4.A.h The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing. Waves can be used to transmit information and energy.
SCI.PS4.B.h Both an electromagnetic wave model and a photon model explain features of electromagnetic radiation broadly and describe common applications of electromagnetic radiation.
SCI.PS4.C.h Large amounts of information can be stored and shipped around as a result of being digitized.
SCI.ESS1.A.h Light spectra from stars are used to determine their characteristics, processes, and lifecycles. Solar activity creates the elements through nuclear fusion. The development of technologies has provided the astronomical data that provide the empirical evidence for the Big Bang theory.
SCI.ESS1.B.h Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects. Observations from astronomy and space probes provide evidence for explanations of solar system formation. Cyclical changes in Earth’s tilt and orbit, occurring over tens to hundreds of thousands of years, cause cycles of ice ages and other gradual climate changes.
SCI.ESS1.C.h The rock record resulting from tectonic and other geoscience processes as well as objects from the solar system can provide evidence of Earth’s early history and the relative ages of major geologic formations.
SCI.ESS2.A.h Feedback effects exist within and among Earth’s systems.
SCI.ESS2.B.h Radioactive decay within Earth’s interior contributes to thermal convection in the mantle.
SCI.ESS2.C.h The planet’s dynamics are greatly influenced by water’s unique chemical and physical properties.
SCI.ESS2.D.h The role of radiation from the sun and its interactions with the atmosphere, ocean, and land are the foundation for the global climate system. Global climate models are used to predict future changes, including changes influenced by human behavior and natural factors.
SCI.ESS2.E.h The biosphere and Earth’s other systems have many interconnections that cause a continual coevolution of Earth’s surface and life on it.
SCI.ESS3.A.h Resource availability has guided the development of human society and use of natural resources has associated costs, risks, and benefits.
SCI.ESS3.B.h Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history at local, regional, and global scales.
SCI.ESS3.C.h Sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources, including the development of technologies.
SCI.ESS3.D.h Global climate models used to predict changes continue to be improved, although discoveries about the global climate system are ongoing and continually needed.
SCI.ETS1.A.h Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them.
SCI.ETS1.A.h Humanity faces major global challenges today, such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have manifestations in local communities.
SCI.ETS1.B.h When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
SCI.ETS1.B.h Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical. They are also useful in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs.
SCI.ETS1.C.h Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed.
SCI.ETS2.A.h When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
SCI.ETS2.B.h Modern civilization depends on major technological systems, such as agriculture, health, water, energy, transportation, manufacturing, construction, and communications.
SCI.ETS2.B.h Engineers continuously modify these systems to increase benefits while decreasing costs and risks. New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology.
SCI.ETS3.A.h Individuals from diverse backgrounds bring unique perspectives that are valuable to the outcomes and processes of science and engineering. Scientists’ and engineers’ backgrounds, perspectives, and fields of endeavor influence the nature of questions they ask, the definition of problems, and the nature of their findings and solutions. Some cultures have historically been marginalized in science and engineering discourse.
SCI.ETS3.A.h Scientists and engineers embrace skepticism and critique as a community. Deliberate deceit in science is rare and is likely exposed through the peer-review process. When discovered, intellectual dishonesty is condemned by the scientific community.
SCI.ETS3.B.h Science is both a body of knowledge that represents the current understanding of natural systems and the processes used to refine, elaborate, revise, and extend this knowledge. These processes differentiate science from other ways of knowing.
SCI.ETS3.B.h Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and changes to, theories, ideas, and beliefs over time. Science and engineering innovations may raise ethical issues for which science and engineering, by themselves, do not provide answers and solutions.
SCI.ETS3.C.h Scientists use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques to develop theories. A scientific theory is an explanation of some aspect of the natural word, based on evidence that has been repeatedly confirmed through observation, experimentation (hypothesis-testing), and peer review. The certainty and durability of science findings varies based on the strength of supporting evidence. Theories are usually modified if they are not able to accommodate new evidence.
SCI.ETS3.C.h Engineers use a variety of approaches, tools, and techniques to define problems and develop solutions to those problems. Successful engineering solutions meet stakeholder needs and safety requirements, and are economically viable. Trade-offs in design aspects balance competing demands.