Quiz - Structure and Reactivity - 2 | Structure and Reactivity
Organic Chemistry 1 - Quiz - Structure and Reactivity - 2
Which of the following species can act only as a Lewis base?
NH3 has a lone pair of electrons, making it capable of donating an electron pair to form a covalent bond, which is the definition of a Lewis base. BF3 is a Lewis acid, as it accepts an electron pair. H2O and HCl can act as both Lewis bases and acids.
A reaction where an electrophile E+ reacts with a nucleophile Nu: to form a bond involves:
Nucleophilic substitution involves a nucleophile attacking an electrophile or a positively polarized atom, leading to the substitution of a leaving group by the nucleophile.
Which statement is true regarding isomers in organic chemistry?
All the given statements are true: constitutional isomers have different connectivity; stereoisomers, such as enantiomers and diastereomers, have the same connectivity but differ in spatial orientation; enantiomers are indeed non-superimposable mirror images.
Homolytic cleavage of a chemical bond results in the formation of:
Homolytic cleavage results in the formation of two radical species, each bearing an unpaired electron. Ions are not formed, as the electrons are divided equally.
Which type of arrow is used to denote the movement of a pair of electrons in a reaction mechanism?
A full-headed curved arrow signifies the movement of an electron pair in reaction mechanisms. Half-headed or 'fishhook' arrows indicate the movement of a single electron.
In the context of acid-base chemistry, the term 'conjugate' refers to species that:
In acid-base chemistry, 'conjugate' refers to species that differ by the presence or absence of a proton (H+). A conjugate acid-base pair consists of two species that transform into each other by gaining or losing a proton.
A reaction that features heterolytic cleavage is likely to produce:
Heterolytic cleavage of a bond involves one atom retaining both electrons from the bond, forming ion pairs. This contrasts with homolytic cleavage, which results in free radicals.
The strength of a Bronsted acid is directly related to:
The strength of a Bronsted acid is directly related to all the provided factors: the pKa value, the stability of the conjugate base, and the electronegativity of the atom to which the proton is attached.
Which functional group is characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to a hydrogen atom?
Aldehydes feature a carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. The general structure is RCHO, where R represents an organic substituent.
How does the acidity of carboxylic acids change with the addition of electron-withdrawing substituents?
Electron-withdrawing substituents increase the acidity of carboxylic acids by stabilizing the resulting conjugate base through resonance or inductive effects.