# Quiz 2 - Quantum Theory & Atomic Structure | Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

1

What does the Heisenberg uncertainty principle state?

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to simultaneously measure the position (x) and momentum (p) of a particle with absolute precision.

2

What is the mathematical expression of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?

According to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the product of the uncertainties in measuring the position (Δx) and momentum (Δp) of a particle is always greater than or equal to Planck's constant divided by 4π.

3

What does an atomic orbital represent?

An atomic orbital refers to the wave function (Ψ) of an electron within an atom.

4

What does the principal quantum number (n) represent?

The principal quantum number (n) represents the size and energy of an atomic orbital. Larger values of n correspond to larger orbitals.

5

How many different orientations can a p orbital have?

A p orbital (l = 1) can have three different orientations: px, py, and pz.

6

How many subshells are there in the second electron shell?

The second electron shell (n = 2) has two subshells: 2s and 2p.

7

Which atomic orbital has four lobes and additional angular nodes?

The d orbital is complex in shape, with four lobes and additional angular nodes. There are five d orbitals per energy level.

8

According to Hund's rule, how do electrons occupy degenerate orbitals?

Hund's rule states that degenerate orbitals (orbitals with the same energy) must be singly occupied with parallel spins before they can contain 2 electrons.

9

Which type of substance contains unpaired electrons and is weakly attracted by a magnetic field?

A paramagnetic substance is a substance with unpaired electrons, which makes it weakly attracted by a magnetic field.

10

How is an excited state typically reached?

An excited state is typically reached when electrons absorb energy, often in the form of electromagnetic radiation of a specific frequency.