Quiz 2 - Atomic Structure & Periodic Trends | Atomic Structure and Periodic Trends

General Chemistry 1 - Quiz 2 - Atomic Structure & Periodic Trends


Which element is expected to have the highest first ionization energy?

Nitrogen has a half-full p orbital, which provides extra stability and a higher ionization energy compared to its neighboring elements.


What is the trend in atomic radius as you move down a group on the periodic table?

As you move down a group, additional electron shells are added which increases the distance between the nucleus and the valence electron shell, leading to an increase in atomic radius.


Which of the following correctly defines the effective nuclear charge (Zeff) experienced by an electron in an atom?

The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge experienced by an electron and accounts for both the attractive charge of the protons and the repulsive effects of other electrons.


Element X is known to have a low second ionization energy but high first ionization energy. Which of the following is the most likely electron configuration for the neutral atom of element X?

The first ionization energy is high due to the removal of one 3s electron, and the second ionization energy is relatively lower because the remaining 3s electron is less tightly bound in the now less crowded 3s subshell.


How do electron affinity values change across a period from left to right?

Electron affinity generally increases across a period from left to right because the effective nuclear charge increases, leading to a stronger attraction for additional electrons.


What is the general trend in ionic radius when comparing a cation to its neutral atom?

A cation is smaller than its neutral atom because the loss of electrons results in a greater effective nuclear charge per electron, drawing the remaining electrons closer to the nucleus.


Which of the following ions would have the largest radius?

The O2- ion, being an anion with two extra electrons, has increased electron-electron repulsion, as well as an increased atomic size due to additional shielding, making it larger than the ions listed with fewer electrons or positive charges.


Which of the following elements would you expect to have the highest electron affinity?

Chlorine, being close to completing its valence electron shell, has a high electron affinity due to its high effective nuclear charge and the added stability of forming a complete octet.


The core electrons can shield valence electrons from the effective nuclear charge. Which of the following statements is correct with respect to this shielding effect?

The shielding effect caused by core electrons serves to reduce the effective nuclear charge felt by valence electrons, and as the number of core electrons increases, this effect becomes more pronounced.


How are electron affinity and ionization energy trends related to the atomic structure?

The trends in electron affinity and ionization energy are related to the atomic structure because they reflect the attraction between electrons and the nucleus. As the effective nuclear charge increases, it becomes harder to remove an electron (higher ionization energy) and more favorable to add an electron (higher electron affinity).