Quiz 1 - Atomic Structure & Periodic Trends | Atomic Structure and Periodic Trends

General Chemistry 1 - Quiz 1 - Atomic Structure & Periodic Trends


Which of the following statements is true about elements in the same group of the periodic table?

Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar valence electron configurations, which is why they exhibit similar chemical properties and reactivity.


How many valence electrons does an oxygen atom have?

The electron configuration of oxygen is 1s2 2s2 2p4. The outermost occupied shell (n=2) has 2 electrons in the 2s orbital and 4 electrons in the 2p orbitals, making a total of 6 valence electrons.


What are core electrons?

Core electrons are located in the inner energy levels of an atom. They are tightly bound to the nucleus and do not participate in chemical bonding.


Which of the following best describes the trend of effective nuclear charge (Zeff) across a period in the periodic table?

The effective nuclear charge increases from left to right across a period because the number of protons (Z) increases while the number of core electrons, and so the shielding constant (σ), remains the same.


What is the atomic radius?

The atomic radius is the distance between the nucleus of an atom and its outermost electrons.


Which of the following factors primarily influences the size of an atomic orbital?

The principal quantum number (n) primarily influences the size of an atomic orbital; as n increases, the orbital size increases, leading to a larger atomic radius.


What happens to ionization energy as you remove successive electrons from an atom?

Each successive ionization requires more energy than the previous one because the remaining electrons experience stronger electrostatic attraction from the positively charged nucleus.


Which group of elements typically has relatively low ionization energy?

Alkali metals typically have relatively low ionization energies because they readily lose their outermost electron to achieve a noble gas electron configuration.


Which electron configuration indicates a relatively stable state for a transition metal ion?

A relatively stable electron configuration for transition metals is one with 18 electrons in the outer shell.


What defines an isoelectronic series?

Isoelectronic series are characterized by species with the same electron configurations but varying nuclear charges.